Bereg — historic *county in the northeastern part of the Hungarian Kingdom bordering on the Austrian province of Galicia to the north, *Uzh county to the west, Sobolch/Szabolcs and Sokmar/Szatmar counties to the south, and *Maramorosh and *Ugocha counties to the east. Bereg county was formed in 1261 and lasted until 1919, when most of its territory was incorporated into Czechoslovakia. It covered 3,727 sq. kilometers with an administrative center at Berehovo (Hungarian: Beregszasz). According to present-day administrative boundaries, the former Bereg county includes the Berehovo, Mukachevo, Volovets’ districts, most of Svaliava, and western Irshava districts (raiony) of the *Transcarpathian oblast of Ukraine, as well as a small portion of northeastern Hungary.
Bereg’s population in 1910 numbered 236,600 and included 113,100 *Magyars, 100,900 Rusyns, 33,700 *Jews, 20,700 *Germans, and smaller numbers of *Slovaks and *Gypsies/Roma. The county’s largest city was Mukachevo (Hungarian: Munkacs), of whose 17,200 inhabitants only 8 percent were Rusyns. Within Bereg are located some of the most important Rusyn cultural and historical centers, including the *St. Nicholas Monastery and the Mukachevo Castle, both near Mukachevo. From the eighteenth to the early twentieth century much of Bereg county was part of large landed estate owned by the *Schonborn-Buchheim family.
Bibliography: Tivadar Lehoczky, Beregvarmegye monographiaja, 3 vols. (Uzhhorod, 1881; repr. 1994); Theodor Lehoczky, “Das Bereger Comitat,” in Die osterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild: Ungarn, Vol. V, Pt. 2 (Vienna, 1900), pp. 418-429; Tivadar Lehoczky, Bereg varmegye (Uzhhorod, 1995).
Paul Robert Magocsi
Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.