Tylava schism — the massive conversion of Greek Catholic Lemko Rusyns to Orthodoxy which began on November 16, 1926, in the village of Tylawa (Rusyn: Tyl’ova) in the Krosno district of the Lemko Region in Poland. The reasons for the movement were several: discontent with latinization influences on the Greek Catholic Church and with Ukrainian national ideology being spread by certain Greek Catholic priests; pro-Orthodox propaganda disseminated by returning Lemko immigrants from the United States and by Poland’s Orthodox Church; and the high cost of pastoral services demanded by certain Greek Catholic priests. In 1931 an Orthodox Mission was established in the *Lemko Region, and in 1935 a Lemko Deanery of the Orthodox Eparchy of Warsaw-Chelm was created which by the outbreak of World War II included about 20,000 Orthodox faithful in Lemko villages. The rapid spread of Orthodoxy alarmed the Vatican, and in an effort to contain further Greek Catholic losses it created the *Lemko Apostolic Administration.
Bibliography: Petro Virkhnians’kyi, “Pravoslav”ia na Lemkivshchyni v 1926-1931 rokakh,” Zustrichi, VI  (Warsaw, 1989), pp. 111-121; Jaroslaw Moklak, “The Phenomenon of the Expansion of Orthodoxy in the Greek Catholic Diocese of Przemysl: Missionary Activities of the Orthodox Church, 1918-1939,” in Paul J. Best, ed., Carpatho-Slavic Studies, Vol. II (New Haven, Conn., 1993), pp. 71-92.
Entry courtesy of Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture.